CHINA’S ADOPTION OF THREE-CHILD POLICY
On 31st May 2021, China announced the new three-child policy at a meeting of the Politburo of the Chinese communist party, presided over by CCP General Secretary Xi Jinping. According to the new policy a married couple can have up to three children and this policy would be accompanied by supportive measures such as lower educational costs, step up tax, and housing support to guarantee the legal interests of working women.
REASONS WHICH LED TO THE NEW POLICY:
Below are the factors which gave way to the new policy:
- The results of the seventh national population census showed that the number of births in mainland china in 2020 will be 12 million only, the lowest births recorded since 1960. The Census recorded 264 million in the age group of 60 and over, up 5.44% since 2010 and accounting for 18.70% of the population. Those in the 15-59 age group were 894 million, down by 6.79% since 2010 and accounting for 63.35% of the population.
- Rapid aging and an alarming decline in fertility rate which means the Chinese population which was the largest, has now started shrinking.
- The Two-child policy introduced in the year 2016, failed miserably to boost the birthrates.
THE INDIAN POLICY:
- In India, there are laws in seven states Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, and Uttarakhand barring couples having more than two children from contesting the local body elections.
- In 2019, Assam state introduced a policy whereby those having more than two children would be ineligible for government jobs.
HOW WELL DID THE OLD POLICIES WORK?
- In 1980, the one-child policy was announced, due to its growing population which was approaching one billion which would hinder its economic progress.
- The policy was implemented effectively and the Chinese government thought it was a huge success as it helped the country from severe food shortage and prevented 40 crore children from being born.
- This long–lingering effect of the policy was the main reason for the rapid aging of the population.
- Even though in 2016, the policy was relaxed to two children, the policy helped a little to arrest the rapid population fall.